Category Archives: Plant

Hydroponics 101 – Easy Plants to Grow

Hydroponics 101 – Easy Plants to Grow

You are starting out your garden for the first time. Youve prepared your garden bed, purchased the tools you will need, and you are wearing your gardening clogs around the house to break them in. You are on your way, fellow gardener! However, the next step is to grow. The great thing is, as a first time gardener, there are lots of plants to choose from. Sunflowers, the morning glory, and nasturtiums are some flowers that are easy to grow. Sunflowers and nasturtiums have large seeds and germinate very quickly. The morning glory may take a little effort to get going, but they are incredibly vigorous once fully grown.

Sunflower seeds are sold in almost every gardening store. Purchase some seeds, and plop some of them into a damp paper towel. The ones that germinate can be planted directly into the ground after the frost has passed. The seeds should be about 12 inches apart, and rows should be spaced about 2-3 feet apart. In about 5-10 days you should see seedlings.

Nasturtiums grow well with a little neglect. They are easy to grow, so they are usually started from seed. They can be sown directly into the garden when the soil is warm. Maintenance consists of weekly watering. Deadheading is not necessary, nor is fertilizer.

The morning glory plants are also sown from seed. They germinate quickly, and can fill a trellis or a fence in a flash. They can grow up to 15-20 feet during the gardening season. Sow Morning Glory seeds early in the season and water thoroughly after planting. Plants should be spaced about 6 inches apart. They do not require much maintenance part from a little fertilizer once a month and full sunlight.

If you want to grow some vegetables, there are many to choose from. One of the easiest plants to grow is the cress. These are usually grown indoors in flat containers. They grow very quickly, and if you have children, will be fun for them to grow in egg shells. Another great vegetable to grow are peppers. Both hot and bell are relatively easy to grow from seeds, and they can even grow in shady areas. Tomatoes are another great plant to grow. They are hardy, can be grown from seed outdoors or indoors, and even survive transplanting fairly well. Seeds will germinate in about a week.

Gardening for the first time may seem like a daunting task, but with a little time and tender loving care, you can cultivate a beautiful (and edible) garden- indoors and outdoors- in no time. There are many resources for first time gardeners, and many plants to choose from.

Carvico leader in warp-knit fabrics to set up plant in vietnam

Carvico leader in warp-knit fabrics to set up plant in vietnam

Carvico SpA, an avid unpleasant poor bad foul foul hard poor service founded in 1962 simply simply by Mr. Giuseppe Colnaghi soon after then currently driving by an individual’s wife, Mrs. Laura Colnaghi Calissoni, also also this also also rounds alpha dog in a dropping history growth of warp-knit sheets for swimmwear, sportswear after all over these outwear; – acceleration a momentary history offshore linen sight it boasts generally endured back out for it’s efficiency, modernity after all of all of all of all of this all your folks are able to innovation. The department asserts 347 staff account storage units following be ready capital t in 2007 it’s earnings was an rough 102 billion revenue Euros, two thirds that being released on the from upload activities.

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The solution of Carvico’s necessary research also provides faraway origins: it stalks after the watchful perspective canoe . heighten spine its long time experience then searching for wary credit account of acoustic values, efficiently essential particulars that can cause height quality, up-to-date products, before now believed as a rapid history future. A driven but so these are certainly not even achieve all of all in most big t because far, thanks big t a dropping history acting professional after finishing the R&D Unit, after which it big time t the relevancy used to state-of-the-art digital know-how equal in regards to the order of last to more additional equipments. Besides evolving following treating the Italian know-how by choosing unique 100% Made in Italy, Carvico is soak the skills to manage its international business now for the 3 by tactical located routers (in Hong Kong, Australia and full bloom able to India), and it will help to result in the agent economical raft ; rise solitary point fast rising markets, equally as the Asian one.

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How and when to hire a power plant

How and when to hire a power plant

Temporary power plants are essential energy solutions for power grids or communities that are suffering from down time. They can be set up to help stabilise towns or industries that are having problems with their local grid and provide much needed back up power until a permanent solution has been reached.

When a community or industry’s energy demands exceeds the capacities of their current plant, a temporary solution is a good way to ensure energy is efficiently provided while a long term strategy is put in place. It’s the perfect, non permanent way to supplement a grid in a large scale and without running up large, unnecessary bills from numerous small solutions trying to do the same thing.

A temporary power plant also offers the ability to implement seasonal peak shaving. This is when a temporary or additional source of power is used during busy or peak seasons to stabilise a supply that might otherwise struggle under demand. It is often a good and growing solution in countries that experience extreme temperatures or in hydro dependent countries that suffer from a lack of rainfall. It is used to supplement renewable energy sources that are not able to provide the energy needed during times of drought or low wind speeds.

In these tough conditions a temporary solution can be used to help to prevent outages, and often for only a few hours a day during peak seasons. What’s more, because it is only used during peak times, it doesn’t accrue costs throughout the year. Demand is also increasingly on the up due to the number of governments who are attempting to introduce renewable power solutions. These typically dependent on natural resources such as wind or rain and can therefore suffer teething problems best alleviated with some temporary help.

Another application for a temporary power plant is as way to continue to provide an uninterrupted power supply during breakdowns or scheduled maintenance. The ease and speed with which a plant can be set up and switched on can minimise down time and ensure inconvenient blackouts are avoided. They are also often called into service to provide power for large construction sites or projects that need more energy than can be provided by small-scale generators.

When choosing the best temporary power plant to suit your needs, due to the nature of most applications, you’re normally going to need a company that is able to respond and provide you with a power plant hire solution rapidly. Flexibility is another major factor to consider when choosing a supplier. You want to be sure that the installed capacity of a rental package can be increased or decreased incrementally and that any required equipment can be rented on a short or long-term basis.

It’s also essential that you choose a temporary power plant provider that will offer you an initial assessment of need to service back-up site as this can help you ensure you are able to choose the best solution for your power needs.

Aloe The Wonder Plant

Aloe The Wonder Plant

Everyone wants to look young and stay young. “Wow! You look too young for your age!” – This is the comment that everyone wants to hear at least once during life time. It is certainly impossible if you sit in a penance and wait for the Gods to appear before you and bestow you with perpetual youth. It is up to you to care for your appearance. If there is anything that can make you look younger than your actual age, it is Aloe. Aloe Vera, or Aloe as it is commonly known, is a magical plant that is capable of repairing your aged skin cells and reversing the ageing process of the skin. This might seem to be an overstatement for some who has no idea about this magical plant. The benefits availed by using Aloe Vera are scientifically proven by both scientists and medical researchers.

Here is a crux of what this wonder plant does. When a baby is born, he/she has a lot of collagen in their skin cells. Collagen is the substance that gives elasticity to the skin. It is this elasticity that makes the skin look young. As a baby grows to be an adult, the amount of collagen starts to reduce. Thereby, the skin loses its elasticity. Moreover, skin renewal does not happen, as a result of which age reflects on your skin. When a person uses Aloe Vera’s gel, the gel penetrates itself into the skin cells, and stimulates the development of collagen. Thereby, your skin’s ageing process gets reversed and aged cells get rejuvenated.

With continuous use of Aloe Vera, you can find that fine lines and wrinkles on your face disappear gradually. Aloe Vera imparts a certain natural glow to your face that is not seen with any other facial product. Aloe Vera gel has been used since ages, to relieve skin discomforts like acne, pimples, and other serious skin disorders. The plant is also applied externally to wounds and burns. Research shows that wounds and burns heal faster with continued application of Aloe to wounds.

A lot ofForever Living Products are available in the market. These include Aloe Vera Gel, Aloe Vera syrup, Aloe Shampoos, and so on. Aloe shampoos are the sought-after products of most men and women, owing to the exceptional conditioning and nourishment that it offers to their hair. Aloe can also be consumed as a health drink. Those who have digestive discomfort should try this drink for sure.

Studies also show that consuming Aloe internally can treat Type II diabetes. It is also believed that Aloe is capable of inhibiting tumor outgrowth. Several cosmetologists and cosmetic product manufacturers now use the leaf and flower extracts of Aloe Barbedensis in their beauty products. Aloe Vera Products are available in almost all shops and supermarkets. It is always better to buy processed Aloe from reputed manufacturers. This will ensure that you get the best results. Try Aloe right now and experience the difference that it creates.

Top 5 Largest Solar Power Plants in the World

Top 5 Largest Solar Power Plants in the World

The Olmedilla Photovoltaic (PV) Park in Spain is the largest Solar Power plant in the world. Similarly the other largest solar PV plants are also located in Europe.

The demand for Solar Power in the United States is swelling even with an economic recession in the background. The main reasons that can be attributed to this growth are:

Financial incentives from government
Simplification of credit accessibility
Improvement in recognition of environmental benefits in the public

Even though the largest Solar Power plants are not in the US, but the under-construction projects in New Mexico and California are expected to balance out the dominance of Europe in a few years.

Worlds Largest Solar Plants

1. Olmedilla Photovoltaic (PV) Park in Spain

This solar plant has more than 160,000 flat solar PV panels that generate over 60 MW of electricity in a day. This plant was constructed within 15 months at a staggering cost of $530 million. The panels used are of the conventional type, made from silicon, expensive and heavy.

2. Puertollano PV Park in Spain

The Puertollano solar plant generates around 50 MW of Solar Power in a day. It produces enough power to meet the electricity requirement of 39,000 average households. And, the energy generated by it in 25 years would offset more than 2 million tons of carbon dioxide.

3. Moura PV Power Station in Portugal

The Moura solar plant was built at a cost of 250 million in two phases. It generates 46 MW of electricity on a good sunny day with its more than 375,000 panels. The plant is spread across an area of more than 320 acres and produces 88 Giga-Watt Hour of electricity in a year.

4. Waldpolenz Solar Park in Germany

This solar plant is the largest thin-film solar plant in the world. It is constructed in a military air base and has a total Solar Power generation capacity of 40 MW. The plant has more than 0.55 million thin-film panels that generate around 40,000 MWh of power in a year. It is built at a total investment of around 130 million.

5. Arnedo Solar Plant in Spain

The fifth largest Solar Power plant in the world is the Arnedo plant that has an annually electricity generation capacity of 34 GWh. It can power more than 12,000 average-sized households and offset 375,000 tons of carbon dioxide during its lifetime.

This plant is spread across 70 Hectares and has more than 170,000 solar panels. It was built at an investment of 180 million and currently it is meeting 62% of the electricity requirement of La Rioja, a wine producing region in Spain.

How to Grow Grass Effectively by Learning How to Plant Grass Seeds Quickly

How to Grow Grass Effectively by Learning How to Plant Grass Seeds Quickly

Knowing how to grow grass effectively would mean going over factors like soil condition, seed variety and water availability. These are very important considerations before learning how to plant grass seeds the quickest possible way.

There are a lot of reasons why most homeowners now want to learn how to grow grass. One reason is the natural beauty it can project ensuring healthy looking lawns. Before, what people only know to plant grass seed the slow way. This is done by initially prepping the ground using a rake before putting down a slim layer or top soil. Afterwards, grass seeds are sprinkled before another layer of top soil is placed.

There are various ways on how to grow grass quickly. In one method, you would need materials like 2 to 3 medium bags (20 lbs.) of top soil (even cheap ones are okay), 5 pounds of grass seeds, a shovel and a garden cart or wheelbarrow as well as a hose/sprinkler and rake (optional).

Step 1 Pour one or two bags of top soil into the wheel barrow. Then, break it a little to make it somewhat loose. As a tip you can put one bag inside the wheel barrel and use the shovel by bringing it down on one end of the bag before lifting it and allowing the top soil to tumble out.

Step 2 For every bag of top soil used, get a handful of grass seeds then, throw it inside the wheel barrel.

Step 3 Use the shovel and mix the seeds and the soil together. Its like kneading bread while mixing in nuts or raisins. Make sure the soil is still fairly loose so that its easier to spread.

Step 4 Shovel out your soil mixture. Then, sprinkle it lightly on your bare spot. You can hold the shovel using your left hand and then use your right hand to twist the shovel (for the soil to shimmy off the end). Keep in mind that you only need a thin layer of soil as well as seed mixture.

Step 5 When youve distributed all the soil and the seed mixture, set up a sprinkler so that you can water that spot from time to time.

With this method, the seed and soil mixture can grow grass quickly. This is since you are putting down some rich soil together with the seeds all throughout and not just underneath or on top of it. However, you also need to understand that therell also be bad times when you plant grass seeds. There are types of grass that can be pretty hard and will even grow without much trouble, especially if the conditions are just right.

The above-mentioned method can effectively grow grass whether in large or small areas. Many find it even easier to just rake over a bare spot and loosen up existing soil before throwing in a quick layer of seed.

Hibiscus Plants

Hibiscus Plants

Hibiscus, the fascinating flowering tropical plant, had its origin in Asia. It has spread to several parts of the world and is among the most popular garden plants. Hibiscus are also grown for landscaping and as hedges. Today, there are thousands of known varieties of the shrub. Many are hybrids. New types are still being discovered, bred and recorded. Sizes differ from less than 12 inches tall (Hibiscus trionum) to about 40 feet (Lagunaria patersonii). The life span of tropical hibiscus can be up to 50 years. In comparison, the hybrids have a shorter existence, approximately 10 to 15 years.

In the tropics, Hibiscus can be found thriving in the most difficult and desolate terrain. Some plants are dense and bushy, while others are thin and tall. The biggest attraction of the Hibiscus plant is the flower. Hibiscus come in many colors and sizes, and in areas where the temperature is above 70 degrees, it flowers throughout the year.

The leaves are normally elongated or oval shaped and about two to four inches in length. Usually the color of the leaves is dull green, glossy dark green or with a reddish tint.

The many medicinal, cosmetic and gastronomic properties of the Hibiscus go back to ancient times. Modern research has confirmed these properties and continues to reveal new ones. All parts of the plant are considered edible.

Propagation of Hibiscus can be made through cuttings or grafting or by germinating the seeds. Saplings and seeds are available from nurseries and florists. Seed germinated plants are unlikely to have the same characteristics as the parent plant because the pollination may not be from the same source. In fact, it is possible that a packet you buy may contain seeds from different parents and could grow into plants that vary in characteristics. If you have one Hibiscus plant, by using cuttings from that plant, a number of similar plants can be grown.

IMASTER TO Tell You How to choose plant lights and led grow lights dendrobium greenhouse cultivation techniques

IMASTER TO Tell You How to choose plant lights and led grow lights dendrobium greenhouse cultivation techniques

Crop plants themselves are chosen based lights , led grow lights using the ultimate aim is to grow better crops , so choose plants need light lamps must first understand the characteristics of the crop , either seeds or plants . 1, the seeds need light characteristic Many seed germination are required to exhibit different optical properties . In some plants the seeds under light matt can germinate , but does not affect its germination rate, such as wheat, sunflower , peas , etc. ; some seed hi light , no light in the case of serious impact on germination rate , and in the light under germinate well, such as high straight , tobacco , long tooth grass, Tanabe grass, black grass , etc. ; some are too light seeds in dark circumstances will exhibit good germination rate , such as dry grass head , Mandolin flower, cockscomb , looking vegetables , onions, although silk and the like. For neutral seeds and hi light seeds, from a qualitative point of view, light , red and blue can promote seed germination , red also has an effective function of seeds to break dormancy . 2 , the optical properties of the seedling stage need Related seedling leaf photosynthetic organs , such as has not been fully developed, this time a major role is the role of the signal light , guiding light to build the plant morphology , while inducing a variety of plant material and internal transport and synthetic hormones by light quality to achieve the purpose of inducing seedlings . Optical properties need to spend early During this period the plants need plenty of light , which is formed during the light shape , good shape for the light crop yield and quality are very important . Root length and stout extent , the size of the leaf area , stem thickness and length are closely related to photosynthesis in plants , can also be induced by light, to reach the appropriate form, thereby improving yield and quality of crops. For non- perverted with some leaves or stems of edible parts of vegetables , the substance and how much of these substances contained in vegetables during this period , are closely related to the quality of vegetables , such as most of the leafy vegetables contain nitrates , during cooking it will be converted into nitrites , this substance is harmful to humans . There experiments show that leafy vegetables contained in the yellow light irradiation significantly reduces nitrate . 3, the flowering period required optical properties Flowering period required optical properties mainly in light quality , light intensity and photoperiod these three areas. From the light quality , the plant lights the main consideration is the choice of plant lights light quality composition and proportion, such as red light can induce early flowering , blue can extend the flowering period and so on. Light intensity illumination and flowering plants to the light intensity according to different requirements of different plants can be divided into positive and negative plants, shade plants required light intensity over the sun plants is much lower , the light is too strong it will affect flowering , for flowers dioecious plants will affect the proportion of male and female flowers . Photoperiodic flowering of plants is very important , plants can be divided into long sunshine , the sunshine and the short-day , long exposure time too short can cause even lead to prolonged flowering bloom . 4 , to be strong optical properties of the In addition to the need for adequate seed of light intensity , the light quality induction is essential. Blu-ray and nitrogen metabolism in plants is related to the carbohydrate metabolism of red , whereas the yellow leaf can effectively reduce nitrate levels . 5 , select?led grow lighting? Understanding the characteristics of plants need light after going to need light based on the characteristics of the plant grow light selection. Light intensity and light quality from the start , first light quality , choose the right light quality composition and proportion ; followed by light intensity , light intensity is greater than the plant lights light compensation point of the plant. Lighting choices will have to determine the actual situation and the different cultivation methods of cultivation facilities .

Best led grow light Dendrobium greenhouse cultivation techniques: First, the light: the native environment are generally in the shade and shade . Environment requires moderate shading , light intensity around 20000Lux. Second, the temperature: stop growing below 5 ?, began to sleep. When the temperature is too low , you should pay attention to frost damage , it is best kept above 0 ?. High temperature , about 35 ? will stop growing, the optimum growth temperature is about 25 ? ~ 30 ?. Third, the matrix : should adopt good ventilation, drainage and good matrix as a material . General recommendations blue stone + peat + bark particles mixed materials . However, due to mass production , the cost is relatively high, the bark can also be used as a single matrix . Fourth, Humidity: with hygrometer, best to keep the humidity above 60% , when the rainy weather , humidity above 90% should enhance ventilation to prevent bacterial , fungal diseases occur. Fifth, water ways and water : ground water spray should be less drenching . It normally takes longer isochronous stromal drenching . Water should be biased weak acid , conditional, water softener PH value should be around 6.0. Six Ventilation: ” The ventilation Portland .” The circulation of air is very important, but also can reduce the incidence of disease. Air circulation is also just as important within the matrix of the root , so we recommend use granular material , and water must be drenched , fresh air into the matrix the . Seven fertilization : Use N: P: K is 20:20:20 and add trace elements compound fertilizer . Thin manure handling facilities , fertilizer must not re- use , otherwise it will cause fertilizer damage . Every spring when germination can also be applied as a base fertilizer slow release fertilizer.

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Plants in Profile The Dracaena Species

Plants in Profile The Dracaena Species

The introduction of office plants into modern office buildings has grown significantly in recent years with many companies employing the services of professional office plant and office plant maintenance suppliers. Whilst most interior landscaping companies will provide advice and assistance when it comes to picking the right plants for your office, is may also be useful to try and understand a little more about the types of plants you may soon have in your offices.

The Dracaena species are a very important group of plants when it comes to making business premises green in both an environmental and aesthetical manner. There are approximately 40 different types or sub-species of Dracaena although only around 8 of these are typically used indoors. Due to their versatile nature the Dracaena species have become very popular within interior landscaping and are amongst the top ten most popular office plants to date.

One reason for the Dracaenas increased popularity is that most Dracaena sub-species are capable of surviving in dimly lit office environments. The Dracaena family as a whole have also been credited for their ability to help reduce or remove the potentially harmful toxic gases or Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) that pollute indoor environments.

During the research for his book “Eco Friendly House Plants” (1996) Dr. Bill Wolverton found that members of the Dracaena family were in fact among the most useful home and indoor office plants when it came to reducing the levels of indoor VOCs. Among the plants tested one plant in particular, the Dracaena Janet Craig, proved to be excellent for actively removing trichloroethylene from the air.

The Dracaena Janet Craig is a beautiful office plant with wide dark green foliage and can make a perfect addition to any contemporary office building. The Dracaena Janet Craigs ability to survive and grow in low light and dry conditions is perhaps the reason why it is now one of, if not the, most popular Dracaena plants for offices.

Like its older sister the Dracaena Compacta is a very robust and can tolerate dimly lit environments. The Compacta is a slow growing plant and often looks very architectural making it an ideal option for reception areas or modern office areas where design and architecture are integral to the style and finish of the building. Another two members of the Dracaena family that do their bit for office plants everywhere are the Dracaena Marginata and the Dracaena Massangeana.

Perhaps the most impressive and colourful of the family is the Marginata which has a distinct red or purple coloured stripe around the edge of its leaves. Sometimes referred to as the Madagascan Dragon Tree or Red-Edge Dracaena, the Marginata is a popular choice when it comes to office plants as it is particularly good at removing levels of formaldehyde indoors.

The Dracaena Massangeana is less tolerate to colder climates but more than compensates for this through its wonderful yellow and green coloured foliage. Like the Dracaena Janet Craig this office plant is very effective when it comes to the removal of toxins that can be found in indoor climates.

House Plant Care – Insect Control in Garden Fruit Plantings

House Plant Care – Insect Control in Garden Fruit Plantings

Growing fruit in the home garden can be an interesting, fun and rewarding hobby. This does not happen without a great deal of work. House plant care can be very easy with a few tips to keep them healthy.
Control of pests (diseases and insects) is an integral part of the care necessary to obtain good results. Insect infestations reduce yields and lower the quality of harvested garden vegetables and home fruit plantings. All plant parts may be injured by insects. Some insects bore into roots, seeds or stems. Others destroy crops by chewing on the succulent foliage, stems or fruits. Plant diseases are carried by certain insects. Control can be maintained all season by a combination of cultural practices, mechanical control, biological control and chemical applications.
Cultural practices such as pruning, sanitation, variety selection and selecting open, sites for planting are necessary for good pest control.

How to Use the Spray Schedules

Most fungicide (disease control product) and some insecticide (insect control product) applications are effective only if applied preventatively. The timing of these preventive sprays is based on the growth stage of the plant and forms the foundation of the spray charts that follow. In very rainy seasons, sprays may need to be applied more frequently than the schedule given in the following charts. Wet weather favors development of the disease causing organisms and more chemical protection is needed. Also, rains can wash off the fungicides and insecticides. When rain occurs before a spray has dried or if rainfall totals more than 1 inch within 24 hours, the spray should be re-applied. Fungicides provide more benefit when applied before a rain than after, because protection from infection by disease-causing organisms is needed when plant surfaces are wet.

Additional Spray Tips

One of the biggest mistakes home fruit growers make is to allow their trees to grow too tall. If trees are maintained at a manageable height, it is easier to spray them properly, as well as to harvest the fruit. Proper pruning practices reduce the amount of spray needed and permit better coverage. The type of sprayer used depends on the size of the fruit planting. For most plantings of small fruits or for a few small fruit trees, pump-up sprayers are adequate. Trombone-type sprayers are helpful for taller trees. For the increased spray volumes required by larger home orchards, power sprayers are recommended. Honey bees and other pollinating insects must be protected from insecticides, which will kill them. Do not spray fruit plants with insecticides while the plants are in bloom.

Pesticide Safety

Most of the pesticides suggested for use are low-toxicity materials. However, some precautions are needed:
Keep pesticides in the original, labeled container.
Keep pesticides in a locked storage cabinet, away from children or pets.
Read the label each time before you use the product.
Wear rubber gloves, goggles, a long-sleeved shirt, long pants and a hat when mixing and applying pesticides. Refer to the label for required protective gear.
Handle the pesticide carefully when mixing. Avoid breathing dust or vapors. Wash any chemicals off the skin immediately with plenty of water.
Never apply insecticides and fungicides with a sprayer that has been used for weed killers.
Do not spray if it is windy.
Mix only as much as you need. Do not store diluted spray mixtures from one application to the next. They will lose effectiveness and are unsafe.

Multipurpose Fruit Spray

Growers with small fruit plantings may want to consider multipurpose fruit spray products. These materials are widely available, convenient and will serve most pest control purposes. They are mixtures containing a fungicide (captan), and usually two insecticides (malathion and methoxychlor). Multipurpose sprays are produced by several companies and sold under names such as Home Orchard Spray 7, Tree Fruit Spray, All Purpose Fruit Spray7, General Purpose Fruit Spray7 and others. Certain brands contain an additional insecticide, carbaryl (Sevin). Mixtures containing carbaryl should not be applied to apple or pear until 21 days after petal fall, as it causes the fruit to drop.

Sanitation and Cultural Practices

APPLE AND PEAR
Apple and pear trees are subject to serious damage from pests. The following practices will improve the effectiveness of the pesticides and may lessen the need for sprays.
Plant disease-resistant varieties. Varieties resistant to cedar-apple rust, scab and powdery mildew are also available.
Rake and destroy leaves in the fall, if apple scab, pear scab or pear leaf spot are problems. The organisms that cause these diseases overwinter in infected leaves.
For cedar-apple rust control, elimination of the source of spores – cedar trees – is effective but not always possible. Removal of the galls caused by the fungus on cedar trees is helpful. Pruning trees according to recommendations improves control of all ground diseases. In well-pruned trees, air circulation and sunlight penetration are improved. This helps control diseases by promoting rapid drying after rains and dew. Penetration of sprays into the canopy is also better if the trees are well-pruned.
Prune out and destroy all dead or diseased shoots and limbs during the dormant season. This helps reduce fire blight, fruit rots and certain leaf spots, as the organisms that cause these diseases overwinter in the wood.
PEACH, PLUM AND CHERRY
Peach, plum, cherry and other stone fruits are commonly affected by serious pest problems and, as a result, a conscientious spray program is needed. The following sanitation and cultural practices will improve the chances of success and may lessen the need for sprays.
Prune trees according to recommendations, to allow better air circulation and sunlight penetration. This helps control diseases by promoting rapid drying after rains and dew. Penetration of sprays into the canopy is also better if the trees are well-pruned.
Remove the overwintering structure for the brown rot fungus, old mummified fruit left hanging in the tree or on the ground.
Control of black knot of plum and cherry is dependent on removal of the knots before they begin to produce spores. In late winter, prune out and destroy these rough, black swellings or tumors that develop on limbs and twigs.
Avoid planting peach varieties that are highly susceptible to bacterial leaf spot. Examples are Elberta, Halehaven, Rio- Oso-Gem and Sunhigh. Chemical control of this disease is very limited.
GRAPE
Most home grape plantings will require a preventive schedule of pesticides, since certain pests such as black rot can completely destroy a crop of fruit. However, the following sanitation and cultural practices will reduce the need for pesticides.
Keep vines well-pruned according to recommendations, to prevent overgrowth of vines and dense canopy. Pruning promotes air circulation and sunlight penetration, thus more rapid drying after rains and dew. Penetration of sprays into the foliar canopy is also better if the vines are well-pruned.
Remove mummified berries (shriveled, dry, raisin-like). Clusters on the vines as well as those that have fallen to the ground should be removed. Also, destroy infected canes that have been pruned off. For control of grape root borer, mounding soil makes it difficult for larvae to reach the roots or adults to emerge. Mound some soil 1 foot high for 12 feet around each vine between early and mid-June.
STRAWBERRY
An intensive, preventive spray program is generally not needed on strawberry. Treatments can usually be made on an as-needed basis. The following sanitation and cultural practices will reduce the need for pesticides.

Bed renovation immediately after harvest is crucial to managing pest problems. Renovation involves narrowing rows, mowing leaves, removing weeds and fertilization. Rake and destroy cut-off leaves and stems after renovation.
Maintain narrow rows throughout the growing season (maximum 18 inches wide), to maintain good sunlight and air penetration of the canopy. This provides good berry formation and rapid drying after rains and dew.
Plant varieties with resistance to red stele and leaf spot. Where anthracnose is a problem, consider the resistant varieties Delmarvel and Sweet Charlie.
Control weeds throughout the growing season. Weeds increase disease by shading the plants and by interfering with air circulation. Weeds also harbor many insect and mite pests.
Mulch with straw before berries begin to lie on the ground, to reduce gray mold and leather rot (fruit rots).

Safe Handling of Insecticides

Home gardeners can control insect pests with reasonable safety by observing these safety rules:
Keep insecticides in the original, labeled container.
Keep insecticides in a locked storage container.
Read the label each time you use the insecticide.
Measure the amount to be mixed carefully.
Do not exceed the recommended rate of application.
Handle the insecticide carefully when mixing to avoid splashing of liquid concentrates and billowing of dusts and powders.
Wear protective clothing and other personal protective equipment as dictated by the label.
To protect yourself when mixing insecticides, it is suggested that protective clothing and equipment, such as chemical-resistant gloves, a long-sleeved shirt, long pants and protective eyewear, be worn.
Wash all insecticides off the skin immediately, using plenty of soap and water.
Avoid breathing the spray mist or vapor.
Always mix insecticides outdoors near a source of water.
Clean up any spilled materials to prevent children from entering a heavily contaminated area.
Apply insecticides to only those plants listed on the label.
Observe the time intervals between the last application and harvest.

The severity and type of pest problems on garden vegetables usually vary considerably from year to year. During most growing seasons, consistent production of high quality vegetables is assured only with the use of pesticides for insect control. This is not to suggest that vegetables cannot be grown without pesticides by using nonchemical methods, but it will usually take more effort on the part of the gardener.